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Table 4 Bivariate analysis of other factors associated with postpartum modern contraceptive use

From: Determinants of modern contraceptive use among postpartum women in two health facilities in urban Ghana: a cross-sectional study

Characteristic Contraceptive use, n (%) Chi square p-value
No Yes   
Number of past pregnancies
 1 53 (22.5) 11 (13.1) 7.87 0.096
 2 75 (31.8) 21 (25.0)   
 3 62 (26.3) 26 (31.0)   
 4 35 (14.8) 19 (22.6)   
 More than 4 11 (4.6) 7 (8.3)   
Number of children
 1 107 (45.3) 30 (35.7) 7.39 0.117
 2 72 (30.5) 29 (34.5)   
 3 38 (16.1) 12 (14.3)   
 4 14 (5.9) 12 (14.3)   
 More than 4 5 (2.2) 1 (1.2)   
Age of child
 3–5 months 76 (32.2) 22 (26.2) 2.04 0.564
 6–8 months 82 (34.8) 29 (34.5)   
 9–11 months 51 (21.6) 24 (28.6)   
 12–15 months 27 (11.4) 9 (10.7)   
Desires another child
 No 84 (14.5) 32 (21.2) 0.17 0.682
 Yes 152 (85.5) 52 (78.8)   
When next child is desired
 Within 21 months 22 (66.7) 11 (33.3) 1.28 0.259
 After 21 months 130 (76.0) 41 (24.0)   
Ever used modern contraceptive
 No 154 (65.3) 23 (27.4) 35.95 < 0.001
 Yes 82 (34.7) 61 (72.6)   
Last pregnancy planned/intended
 No 101 (42.8) 37 (44.0) 0.04 0.842
 Yes 135 (57.2) 47 (56.0)   
Menses returned
 No 99 (42.0) 25 (29.8) 3.88 0.049
 Yes 137 (58.0) 59 (70.2)   
Resumed sexual activity
 No 103 (43.6) 7 (8.3) 34.24 < 0.001
 Yes 133 (56.4) 77 (91.7)   
Discussed FP with partner
 No 144 (61.0) 12 (14.3) 54.15 < 0.001
 Yes 92 (39.0) 72 (85.7)   
Partner approves modern contraception
 No 84 (35.6) 17 (20.2) 75.76 < 0.001
 Yes 50 (21.2) 61 (72.6)   
 I do not know 102 (43.2) 6 (7.2)   
Place of delivery
 Health facility 232 (98.3) 83 (98.8)   1.000*
 home 4 (1.7) 1 (1.2)   
ANC attendance
 No 6 (2.5) 2 (2.4)   1.000*
 yes 230 (97.5) 82 (97.6)   
FP counselling at antenatal
 No 68 (29.6) 12 (14.6) 7.068 0.008
 Yes 162 (70.4) 70 (85.4)   
PNC attendance
 No 0 (0.0) 1 (1.2)   0.262*
 Yes 236 (100.0) 83 (98.8)   
FP counselling at PNC
 No 166 (70.3) 34 (41.0) 22.66 < 0.001
 Yes 70 (29.7) 49 (59.0)   
Knowledge of side effects
 Low knowledge 75 (31.8) 33 (39.3) 3.84 0.147
 Moderate knowledge 122 (51.7) 33 (39.3)   
 High knowledge 39 (16.5) 18 (21.4)   
Knowledge of postpartum physiology
 Low knowledge 41 (17.4) 13 (15.5) 1.42 0.491
 Moderate knowledge 92 (39.0) 39 (46.4)   
 High knowledge 103 (43.6) 32 (38.1)   
Knowledge of available FP methods
 No 163 (69.1) 21 (25.0) 49.23 < 0.001
 Yes 73 (30.9) 63 (75.0)   
  1. *Fishers’ exact