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Table 2 Predictors of modern contraceptive utilization among women in union in Papua New Guinea (N = 2345)

From: Modern contraceptive utilization and associated factors among married and cohabiting women in Papua New Guinea: a population-based cross-sectional study

Variable COR[95%CI] AOR [95%CI]
Age
 15–19 5.167***[2.245,11.89] 7.425***[2.853,19.32]
 20–24 4.786***[3.084,7.428] 6.312***[3.591,11.10]
 25–29 4.360***[2.897,6.560] 5.333***[3.281,8.669]
 30–34 2.716***[1.824,4.046] 2.803***[1.811,4.338]
 35–39 2.357***[1.563,3.554] 2.352***[1.544,3.584]
 40–44 1.651*[1.069,2.549] 1.500 [0.966,2.330]
 45–49 Ref Ref
Marital status
 Married 1.027 [0.787,1.339]
 Cohabiting Ref Ref
Residence
 Urban 1.203 [0.972,1.488]
 Rural Ref Ref
Region
 Southern region Ref Ref
 Highlands region 1.539** [1.119,2.118] 1.521* [1.086,2.131]
 Momase region 0.883 [0.674,1.157] 1.03 [0.773,1.373]
 Islands region 0.292***[0.229,0.372] 0.291***[0.224,0.377]
Highest educational level
 No education Ref Ref
 Primary 1.04 [0.798,1.355] 1.32 [0.985,1.769]
 Secondary 1.02 [0.767,1.357] 1.3 [0.912,1.853]
 Higher 0.546** [0.353,0.845] 1.086 [0.577,2.047]
Husband/partner’s educational level
 No education Ref Ref
 Primary 0.578**[0.411,0.813] 0.737 [0.505,1.076]
 Secondary 0.772 [0.542,1.099] 0.881 [0.585,1.325]
 Higher 0.462***[0.304,0.701] 0.531* [0.318,0.886]
Wealth status
 Poorest Ref Ref
 Poor 1.369 [0.943,1.988]
 Middle 0.96 [0.684,1.347]
 Rich 1.156 [0.838,1.597]
 Richest 1.102 [0.801,1.516]
Employment
 Not working Ref Ref
 Professional/technical/managerial 0.538***[0.384,0.756] 0.643* [0.420,0.986]
 Clerical 1.241 [0.661,2.329] 1.082 [0.519,2.257]
 Sales 1.197 [0.782,1.833] 1.299 [0.822,2.054]
 Agricultural - self employed 1.637** [1.203,2.228] 1.710**[1.218,2.400]
 Agricultural - employee 0.916 [0.464,1.809] 1.246 [0.551,2.817]
 Services 1.442*[1.022,2.036] 1.385 [0.944,2.031]
 Skilled manual 0.855 [0.220,3.325] 0.646 [0.188,2.223]
Total children ever born
 1–2 1.538***[1.219,1.940] 1.333 [0.496,3.585]
 3–4 1.543***[1.218,1.955] 1.485 [0.788,2.800]
 5+ Ref Ref
Number of living children
 No child 0.543 [0.180,1.642] 0.213*[0.0498,0.911]
 1–2 1.517***[1.195,1.925] 0.469 [0.175,1.257]
 3–4 1.472** [1.154,1.877] 0.665 [0.352,1.258]
 5+ Ref Ref
Age at first sex
  < 18 yrs 1.934***[1.358,2.755] 0.961 [0.616,1.501]
 18–24 1.747**[1.247,2.448] 1.158 [0.777,1.727]
 25+ Ref Ref
Age at first childbirth
  < 18 1.909***[1.396,2.610] 0.892 [0.568,1.401]
 18–24 1.638***[1.289,2.082] 0.992 [0.722,1.363]
 25+ Ref Ref
Partner desire for children
 Both want same Ref Ref
 Husband wants more 1.370*[1.054,1.781] 1.318 [0.984,1.765]
 Husband wants fewer 1.604 [0.913,2.817] 1.433 [0.764,2.689]
 Don’t know 1.307*[1.055,1.620] 1.286* [1.015,1.630]
Decision maker for using contraception
 Mainly respondent 1.280*[1.028,1.594] 1.2 [0.934,1.542]
 Mainly husband, partner 0.926 [0.699,1.226] 0.923 [0.683,1.247]
 Joint decision Ref Ref
 Other 0.937 [0.388,2.261] 0.876 [0.333,2.303]
Frequency of listening to radio
 Not at all Ref Ref
 Less than once a week 1.356* [1.060,1.734] 1.320*[1.001,1.741]
 At least once a week 1.409** [1.096,1.813] 1.409* [1.048,1.895]
Frequency of reading newspaper or magazine
 Not at all Ref Ref
 Less than once a week 1.077 [0.857,1.353]
 At least once a week 1.088 [0.851,1.391]
Frequency of watching television
 Not at all Ref Ref
 Less than once a week 1.102 [0.813,1.493]
 At least once a week 1.286 [0.983,1.682]
N   2345
  1. Source: 2016–18 PNG DHS
  2. Exponentiated coefficients; 95% confidence intervals in square brackets
  3. * p < 0.05
  4. ** p < 0.01
  5. *** p < 0.001
  6. ref. reference, CI confidence interval, COR Crude Odds Ratio, AOR Adjusted Odds Ratios