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Table 2 Mixed effects results on individual and community-level factors associated with modern contraceptive use among AGYW in Mali

From: Individual and community-level factors associated with modern contraceptive use among adolescent girls and young women in Mali: a mixed effects multilevel analysis of the 2018 Mali demographic and health survey

Variables Model 0 Model 1 aOR[95%CI] Model 2 aOR[95%CI] Model 3 aOR[95%CI]
Age
 15–19   0.90 [0.68–1.19]   0.90 [0.68–1.20]
 20–24   1   1
Marital status
 Not married   0.58 [0.28–1.22]   1.59 [0.28–1.24]
 Married   0.19***[0.09–0.40]   0.20***[0.09–0.41]
 Cohabiting   1   1
 Widowed   0.60 [0.24–1.54]   0.61 [0.24–1.56]
Educational level
 No education   0.41***[0.31–0.55]   0.43***[0.32–0.59]
 Primary   0.43***[0.29–0.62]   0.43***[0.29–0.63]
 Secondary/higher   1   1
Employment status
 Not working   0.95 [0.74–1.22]   0.97 [0.75–1.24]
 Working   1   1
Wealth quintile
 Poorest   0.37***[0.21–0.65]   0.38**[0.19–0.79]
 Poorer   0.46***[0.28–0.75]   0.45*[0.23–0.86]
 Middle   0.80 [0.53–1.19]   0.77 [0.43–1.36]
 Richer   1.15 [0.83–1.59]   1.11 [0.74–1.67]
 Richest   1   1
Parity
 Zero birth   0.37***[0.26–0.52]   0.38***[0.27–0.53]
 One birth   1   1
 Two births   1.38 [1.00–1.92]   1.40* [1.01–1.94]
 Three births   1.84**[1.23–2.75]   1.85**[1.24–2.77]
 Four or more births     
Ethnicity
 Bambara   0.86 [0.56–1.31]   0.86 [0.55–1.32]
 Malinka   0.75 [0.43–1.31]   0.77 [0.44–1.34]
 Peulh   0.52*[0.30–0.89]   0.53*[0.31–0.91]
 Sarakole   0.66 [0.36–1.21]   0.68 [0.37–1.24]
 Sonreal   0.39**[0.21–0.70]   0.43**[0.23–0.77]
 Dogon   1.35 [0.75–2.46]   1.34 [0.74–2.43]
 Touaeg   0.34**[0.16–0.73]   0.42*[0.19–0.91]
 Sonoufo   1   1
 Bobo   0.83 [0.30–2.28]   0.80 [0.29–2.20]
 Others   0.83 [0.45–1.52]   0.83 [0.45–1.51]
Exposure to mass media
 No   0.92 [0.63–1.33]   0.96 [0.66–1.39]
 Yes   1   1
Desire for more children
 Have another   1   1
 Undecided   0.35* [0.13–0.98]   0.36 [0.13–1.00]
 No more   0.93 [0.31–1.55]   0.98 [0.43–2.21]
Ideal number of children
 0–3   1   1
 4–5   0.97 [0.65–1.42]   0.93 [0.63–1.38]
 6+   0.67 [0.44–1.01]   0.66*[0.43–0.99]
Place of Residence
 Urban    1 1
 Rural    1.28 [0.83–1.99] 1.15 [0.72–1.83]
Community literacy level
 Low    0.39***[0.25–0.63] 0.77 [0.45–1.27]
 Moderate    0.59***[0.40–0.86] 0.79 [0.54–1.16]
 High    1 1
Community socio-economic status
 Low    0.67 [0.41–1.10] 1.18 [0.67–2.08]
 Moderate    0.84 [0.46–1.54] 1.13 [0.61–2.11]
 High    1 1
Community knowledge of modern method
 Low    0.43***[0.30–0.60] 0.60** [0.42–0.85]
 Moderate    1 1
Random effect result
 PSU variance (95% CI) 0.83 (0.54–1.29) 0.31 (0.15–0.67) 0.42 (0.22–0.78) 0.29 (0.13–0.64)
 ICC 20.2% 8.7% 11.2% 8.1%
 LR Test χ2 = 65.73, p < 0.001 χ2 = 12.15, p < 0.05 χ2 = 21.12, p < 0.001 χ2 = 10.73, p < 0.05
 Wald chi-square Reference 206.79*** 76.53*** 209.73***
Model fitness
 Log-likelihood − 1096.70 −972.84 − 1056.96 −967.29
 AIC 2197.41 2005.68 2129.91 2005.58
 BIC 2209.16 2182.02 2176.94 2218.19
 N 2639 2639 2639 2639
  1. Source: 2018 Mali Demographic and Health Survey
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  3. 1 Reference category, PSU Primary Sampling Unit, ICC Intra-Class Correlation, LR Test Likelihood ratio Test, AIC Akaike’s Information Criterion; Bayesian information criterion