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Table 3 Mixed effects results on individual and contextual factors associated with modern contraceptive use among adolescent girls and young women in sub-Saharan Africa

From: Predictors of modern contraceptive use among adolescent girls and young women in sub-Saharan Africa: a mixed effects multilevel analysis of data from 29 demographic and health surveys

Variables Model 0
aOR[95%CI]
Model 1
aOR[95%CI]
Model 2
aOR[95%CI]
Model 3
aOR[95%CI]
Age
 15–19   0.82*** (0.79–0.86)   0.86*** (0.83–0.90)
 20–24   1   1
Marital status
 Not married   1   1
 Married   0.80*** (0.76–0.83)   0.83*** (0.79–0.87)
 Cohabiting   0.68*** (0.65–0.72)   0.69*** (0.66–0.73)
 Widowed/separated/divorced   0.78*** (0.72–0.84)   0.77*** (0.72–0.83)
Religion
 Christianity   1   1
 Islam   0.58*** (0.55–0.60)   0.59*** (0.57–0.62)
 Other   0.69*** (0.63–0.75)   0.68*** (0.62–0.74)
Employment status
 Not working   1   1
 Working   0.89*** (0.86–0.92)   0.92*** (0.89–0.95)
Age at first sex
 Less than 15 years   0.99 (0.91–1.06)   1.03 (0.95–1.11)
 15–19 years   1.18*** (1.11–1.26)   1.20*** (1.12–1.28)
 20–24 years   1   1
Parity
 Zero birth   0.48*** (0.45–0.50)   0.44*** (0.42–0.47)
 One birth   0.78*** (0.75–0.82)   0.76*** (0.72–0.80)
 Two births   1   1
 Three births   0.92* (0.85–0.98)   0.94 (0.87–1.01)
 Four or more births   0.85** (0.75–0.96)   0.88 (0.77–1.00)
Frequency of reading newspaper/magazine
 Not at all   0.65*** (0.61–1.82)   0.67*** (0.63–0.71)
 Less than once a week   1.02 (0.96–1.08)   0.98 (0.91–1.04)
 At least once a week   1   1
Frequency of listening to radio
 Not at all   0.80*** (0.77–0.83)   0.82*** (0.78–0.86)
 Less than once a week   1.00 (0.95–1.04)   0.99 (0.95–1.04)
 At least once a week   1   1
Frequency of watching television
 Not at all   0.85*** (0.81–0.88)   0.97 (0.93–1.01)
 Less than once a week   0.92** (0.88.0.97)   1.00 (0.95–1.06)
 At least once a week   1   1
Desire for more children
 Have another   1.10** (1.03–1.17)   1.08* (1.01–1.15)
 Undecided   0.70*** (0.63–0.77)   0.72*** (0.65–0.80)
 No more   1   1
Ideal number of children
 0–3   1   1
 4–5   0.73*** (0.70–0.75)   0.78*** (0.75–0.81)
 6+   0.31*** (0.29–0.32)   0.38*** (0.35–0.40)
Place of Residence
 Urban    1 1
 Rural    0.83*** (0.79–0.86) 0.89*** (0.85–0.93)
Community literacy level
 Low    0.63*** (0.60–0.66) 0.73*** (0.70–0.77)
 Moderate    0.98 (0.94–1.02) 0.95* (0.92–0.99)
 High    1 1
Community socio-economic status
 Low    0.66*** (0.63–0.70) 0.69*** (0.65–0.73)
 Moderate    1 1
 High    0.96 (0.91–1.02) 0.90*** (0.84–0.95)
Community knowledge of modern method
 Low    1 1
 Moderate    0.43*** (0.40–0.44) 0.53*** (0.51–0.56)
 High    0.24*** (0.19–0.29) 0.33*** (0.27–0.41)
Random effect result
 PSU variance (95% CI) 0.03 (0.02–0.04) 0.02 (0.01–0.03) 0.03 (0.01–0.04) 0.02 (0.01–0.03)
 ICC 0.008 0.006 0.007 0.006
 LR Test χ2 = 91.46, p < 0.001 χ2 = 47.41, p < 0.001 χ2 = 68.69, p < 0.001 χ2 = 45.92, p < 0.001
 Wald chi-square Reference 6019.62*** 3323.50*** 7015.95***
Model fitness
 Log-likelihood −49,667.17 −46,122.51 −47,848.36 −45,426.69
 AIC 99,338.16 92,295.02 95,714.72 90,917.38
 N 91,083 91,083 91,083 91,083
  1. Source: Demographic and Health Surveys
  2. 1 Reference category, PSU Primary Sampling Unit, ICC Intra-Class Correlation, LR Test Likelihood ratio Test, AIC Akaike’s Information Criterion
  3. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001