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Table 3 Multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis result of both individual and community-level factors associated with unmet need for family planning in Ethiopia, EDHS 2016

From: Spatial distribution and determinant factors of unmet need for family planning among all reproductive-age women in Ethiopia: a multi-level logistic regression modelling approach

Individual and community
level characteristics
Null model Model II
AOR (95% CI)
Model III
AOR (95% CI)
Model IV
AOR (95% CI)
Residence
 Urban    1 1
 Rural    1.96 (1.41, 2.72) 1.37*(1.01,1.93)
Region
 Tigray    1 1
 Amhara    0.87 (0.66, 1.16) 0.89 (0.66,1.20)
 Afar    1.03 (0.74,1.42) 0.69 (0.45,1.05)
 Oromia    1.79 (1.38,2.31) 1.53*(1.10,2.11)
 Somali    0.55 (0.37,0.82) 0.37***(0.22,0.61)
 Benishangul Gumuz    1.32 (1.01,1.73) 0.99 (0.73,1.37)
 SNNPR    1.23 (0.93,1.61) 1.02 (0.74,1.40)
 Gambella    1.90 (1.28,2.81) 1.94**(1.26,3.01)
 Harari    1.69 (1.26,2.26) 1.26 (0.86,1.84)
 Addis Ababa    0.87 (0.59,1.29) 1.19 (0.80,1.77)
 Dire-Dawa    1.56 (1.07,2.28) 1.25 (0.80,1.96)
Age of respondents
 15–19 years   1   1
 20–24 years   0.90 (1.10,1.74)   0.89 (0.62,1.28)
 25–49 years   0.97 (0.69,1.35)   0.97 (0.69,1.36)
Marital status
 Never in union   1   1
 Married or in unions   26.72 (11.55,61.83)   25.70***(11.50, 60.42)
 Separated/divorced/widowed   1.51 (0.46,4.95)   1.55 (0.47,5.09)
Religion
 Orthodox   1   1
 Muslim   1.38 (1.11,1.74)   1.35*(1.03,1.76)
 Protestant   0.87 (0.67,1.13)   0.73*(0.54,0.99)
 Catholic/traditions/others   2.08 (1.22, 3.54)   1.67 (0.96,2.91)
Wealth status
 Rich   1   1
 Average   1.22 (0.96,1.55)   1.15 (0.90,1.48)
 Poor   1.46 (1.18,1.81)   1.43**(1.14,1.79)
Women’s education
 No education   1   1
 Primary education   1.17 (0.96,1.42)   1.16 (0.95, 1.42)
 Secondary education   1.14 (0.76,1.70)   1.23 (0.82,1.86)
 Higher education   1.20 (0.75,1.93)   1.37 (0.71,1.74)
Living children with the current pregnancy
 Less than five   1   1
 Five and above   2.00 (1.65,2.43)   1.98***(1.62,2.41)
Age at first marriage
 Below 15 years   1   1
 15–24 years   0.89 (0.74,1.07)   0.89 (0.74,1.07)
 25 and above years   0.76 (0.46,1.24)   0.76 (0.46,1.24)
Knowledge of any FP methods
 No   1   1
 Yes   2.28 (1.26,4.14)   1.56 (0.84,2.87)
Media exposure
 No   1   1
 Yes   0.94 (0.76,1.16)   0.95 (0.77,1.17)
Visited by family planning workers within 12 months
 No   1   1
 Yes   0.98 (0.84,1.15)   0.96 (0.83,1.14)
Visited health facility within 12 months
 No   1   1
 Yes   0.92 (0.76,1.01)   0.92 (0.77,1.11)
Community-level education
 Low    1 1
 High    0.85 (0.69,1.04) 0.90 (0.72,1.14)
Community-level media exposure
 Low    1 1
 High    0.69 (0.55,0.85) 0.98 (0.79,1.21)
Random effects
 ICC 35.8 24.9 23.3 20.3
 Log-likelihood (LL) -6021.24 -5160.85 -5938.67 -5126.52
 Deviance(-2LL) 12,042.48 10,321.70 11,877.34 10,253.04
 PCV-Explained variation Ref 40.5 46.6 54.3
 MOR 2.07 1.75 1.69 1.62
  1. Key: COR Crude odds ratio AOR: Adjusted odds ratio; CI Confidence interval, ICC; 1: reference group; p-value 0.05–0.01 *: P-value < 0.01 **: p-value < 0.001***