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Table 3 Summary describing the contraceptive need in American women’s carceral system (key question 1)

From: Contraception need and available services among incarcerated women in the United States: a systematic review

Reference and YearDescribes prevalence of unintended pregnancyEvaluates abortion prevalenceAssesses preincarceration contraception utilizationEvaluates desire to use contraceptionReports prevalence with access to health-care providerEstimates who is at risk for pregnancy post-release a
Clarke et al., 2006b  
Clarke et al., 2006c 
Clarke et al., 2006d   
Hale et al., 2009  
LaRochelle et al., 2012  
Cannon et al., 2018  
Ghidei, Ramos, Brousseau, & Clarke, 2018     
Total (%)4/7 (57)5/7 (71)6/7 (86)5/7 (71)2/7 (29)2/7 (29)
  1. a At-risk for pregnancy is defined as women of reproductive age with a uterus, having intercourse with men and not already using a highly effective form of contraception as defined by the World Health Organization (intrauterine device, subdermal implant, or tubal sterilization)
  2. b Reproductive Health Care and Family Planning Needs Among Incarcerated Women [7]
  3. c Pregnancy and Contraceptive Attitudes Among Women Entering Jail [8]
  4. d Improving Birth Control Service Utilization by Offering Prerelease Vs. Postincarceration [9]