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Table 3 Mixed-effects results on the predictors of modern contraceptive use among women with no fertility intention in sub-Saharan Africa

From: Factors associated with modern contraceptive use among women with no fertility intention in sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from cross-sectional surveys of 29 countries

Variables Model 0 Model I
aOR(95%CI)
Model II
aOR(95%CI)
Model III
aOR(95%CI)
Age
 15–19   1   1
 20–24   1.20* (1.04–1.40)   1.03 (0.88–1.20)
 25–29   1.26** (1.08–1.46)   0.95 (0.81–1.17)
 30–34   1.26** (1.08–1.47)   0.92 (0.78–1.08)
 35–39   1.13 (0.74–1.32)   0.86 (0.73–1.01)
 40–44   0.86 (0.74–1.01)   0.66*** (0.56–0.78)
 45–49   0.43*** (0.37–0.50)   0.33*** (0.28–0.39)
Marital status
 Married   1   1
 Not married   0.72*** (0.66–0.77)   0.59*** (0.55–0.65)
 Cohabiting   0.61*** (0.58–0.64)   0.73*** (0.69–0.76)
 Widowed   0.34*** (0.31–0.37)   0.31*** (0.28–0.33)
 Divorced   0.56*** (0.53–0.60)   0.55*** (0.52–0.59)
Religion
 Christianity   1   1
 Islam   0.53*** (0.50–0.55)   0.60*** (0.57–0.63)
 Traditional   0.51*** (0.44–0.57)   0.78*** (0.69–0.89)
 No religion   0.72*** (0.64–0.81)   0.81*** (0.75–0.91)
Employment status
 Working   1   1
 Not working   1.00 (0.96–1.04)   0.89*** (0.85–0.93)
Age at first sex
 Less than 15   1   1
 15–19   1.23*** (1.18–1.28)   1.12*** (1.07–1.17)
 20+   1.15*** (1.09–1.22)   0.96 (0.91–1.02)
Parity
 No birth   1   1
 One birth   3.41*** (2.81–4.14)   3.66*** (3.00–4.48)
 Two births   6.13*** (5.03–7.47)   7.59*** (6.18–9.32)
 Three births   6.30*** (5.16–7.70)   8.85*** (7.19–10.90)
 Four or more births   5.55*** (4.54–6.77)   8.78*** (7.13–10.82)
Education
 No education   1   1
 Primary   1.96*** (1.88–2.05)   1.56*** (1.49–1.63)
 Secondary   2.05*** (1.95–2.16)   1.75*** (1.65–1.85)
 Higher   2.23*** (2.03–2.45)   1.93*** (1.75–2.13)
Exposure to newspaper
 No   1   1
 Yes   1.40*** (1.34–1.46)   1.15*** (1.10–1.20)
Exposure to radio
 No   1   1
 Yes   1.31*** (1.26–1.35)   1.21*** (1.17–1.26)
Exposure to television
 No   1   1
 Yes   0.97 (0.93–1.01)   0.98 (0.94–1.02)
Residence
 Rural    1 1
 Urban    1.05* (1.01–1.10) 1.06** (1.02–1.11)
Wealth index
 Poorest    1 1
 Poorer    1.36*** (1.39–1.43) 1.26*** (1.19–1.33)
 Middle    1.53*** (1.45–1.61) 1.34*** (1.27–1.41)
 Richer    1.70*** (1.61–1.80) 1.44*** (1.35–1.52)
 Richest    1.99*** (1.86–2.13) 1.55*** (1.43–1.67)
Community literacy level
 Low    1 1
 Medium    1.27*** (1.23–1.32) 1.11*** (1.06–1.16)
 High    1.12*** (1.07–1.17) 0.95 (0.90–1.00)
Community socioeconomic status
 Low    1 1
 Medium    1.14*** (1.08–1.20) 1.17*** (1.10–1.23)
 High    1.06* (1.01–1.12) 1.13*** (1.07–1.19)
Community knowledge of modern contraceptive method
 Low    1 1
 Medium    0.77*** (0.70–0.84) 0.81*** (0.74–0.89)
Sub-region
 West Africa    1 1
 East Africa    2.62*** (2.52–2.72) 2.16*** (2.07–2.27)
 Central Africa    0.66*** (0.62–0.72) 0.57*** (0.52–0.62)
 Southern Africa    5.08*** (5.08–5.85) 5.29*** (4.86–5.76)
Random effect result
 PSU variance (95% CI) 0.03 (0.02–0.04) 0.02 (0.02–0.03) 0.02 (0.02–0.03) 0.02 (0.01–0.03)
 ICC 0.009398 0.0073918 0.0066778 0.0059027
 LR Test Chi-square = 93.90, p < 0.0001 Chi-square = 60.28, p < 0.0001 Chi-square = 52.94, p < 0.0001 Chi-square = 39.24, p < 0.0001
 Wald chi-square Reference 8014.01*** 6928.45*** 11,041.57***
Model fitness
 Log-likelihood −52,079.447 −47,165.892 −48.68.293 −44,895.43
 AIC 104,162.9 94,387.78 96,166.59 89,872.86
 N 87,554 87,554 87,554 87,554
 Number of clusters 1605 1605 1605 1605
  1. Exponentiated coefficients; 95% confidence intervals in brackets
  2. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001,
  3. 1 = Reference category; ICC = Intra-Class Correlation; AIC = Akaike’s Information Criterion;
  4. Model 0 = The null model, a baseline model without any determinant variable
  5. Model I = Individual-level variables
  6. Model II = Contextual-level variables
  7. Model III = The final model adjusted for individual- and contextual-level variables