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Table 5 Frequency and factors associated with modern contraceptive use

From: Social consequences of COVID-19 on fertility preference consistency and contraceptive use among Nigerian women: insights from population-based data

Variables Modern contraceptive use
Socio-demographics (%) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Age group (Years)    Model I Model II
 15-24 20.5 ref   ref
 25-29 23.5 1.19(0.52-2.71)   0.58(0.27-1.23)
 30-34 35.6 2.14(1.09-4.21)*   0.76(0.34-1.70)
 35-39 41 2.69(1.18-6.09)*   0.71(0.28-1.82)
 40-44 38.7 2.44(0.98-6.07)   0.66(0.24-1.77)
 45-49 23.2 1.17(0.44-3.11)   0.24(0.09-0.69)*
Highest education
 None 15.5 ref   ref
 Primary 29.2 2.25(0.91-5.55)   1.29(0.61-2.73)
 Secondary 33.5 2.74(1.14-6.56)*   1.24(0.57-2.68)
 Tertiary 41.3 3.82(1.64-8.88)*   1.64(0.73-3.68)
Employment
 Yes 35.1 ref   ref
 No 21.4 0.50(0.26-0.96)*   0.67(0.36-1.26)
Place of residence
 Urban 36.8 ref   ref
 Rural 14.4 0.29(0.11-0.75)*   0.56(0.17-1.79)
Wealth quintile
 Lowest 20.4 ref   ref
 Lower 33 1.92(0.88-4.21)   1.55(0.75-3.19)
 Middle 34.6 2.06(0.98-4.35)   2.04(0.94-4.40)
 Higher 36.7 2.26(1.08-4.73)   2.02(0.97-4.21)
 Highest 35.5 2.14(0.95-4.82)   1.49(0.59-3.73)
State
 Lagos 38.5 ref   ref
 Kano 18.7 0.37(0.19-0.69)*   0.52(0.25-1.08)
Social consequences of COVID-19
Loss of personal income
  Small 38.9 ref ref ref
  Moderate 36.4 0.90(0.52-1.55) 0.91(0.53-1.57) 1.12(0.68-1.84)
  Large 27.6 0.60(0.34-1.04) 0.57(0.33-.98) 0.76(0.44-1.34)
  No income 32 0.74(0.42-1.30) 0.47(0.17-1.28) 0.87(0.47-1.59)
Loss of household income
  Some or partial 32.1 ref ref  
  Total 34.2 1.10(0.74-1.63) 1.71(0.71-4.12)  
Household food insecurity
  No 31.7 ref ref  
  Yes 37.9 1.31(0.83-2.06) 1.28(0.81-2.02)  
Worry about future household finance
  No 28.3 ref ref  
  Yes 33.1 1.25(0.71-2.22) 1.12(0.65-1.93)  
Economic reliance on partner
  No 35 ref ref  
  Yes 29.8 0.79(0.50-1.24) 0.79(0.51-1.22)  
Marital and reproductive characteristics
No of times married/cohabitted
  Once 33.5 ref   
  More than one 25.4 0.68(0.30-1.51)   
Family type     
  Monogamy 34.3 ref   
  Polygynous 27.1 0.71(0.41-1.23)   
Children ever-born
   < =1 21.4 ref   ref
  2 32.5 1.77(0.98-3.20)   1.43(0.79-2.59)
  3 37.6 2.22(1.30-3.79)*   1.82(1.03-3.20)*
  4 42.9 2.77(1.61-4.77)*   2.45(1.36-4.39)*
   > =5 29.2 1.52(0.78-2.94)   2.89(1.25-6.74)*
History of pregnancy termination in past 3 years
  No 33.2 ref   
  Yes 27.9 0.78(0.43-1.41)   
Changed mind     
  No 32.8 ref   
  Yes 31.5 0.94(0.56-1.60)   
Fertility preference     
  Consistent 33.6 ref   
  Inconsistent 30.3 0.86(0.59-1.27)   
Disposition to pregnancy     
  Happy 19.3 ref   ref
  Unhappy 41.5 2.97(2.06-4.29)*   2.48(1.72-3.58)*
  1. *p < 0.05