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Table 5 Frequency and factors associated with modern contraceptive use

From: Social consequences of COVID-19 on fertility preference consistency and contraceptive use among Nigerian women: insights from population-based data

Variables

Modern contraceptive use

Socio-demographics

(%)

Unadjusted OR (95% CI)

Adjusted OR (95% CI)

Age group (Years)

  

Model I

Model II

 15-24

20.5

ref

 

ref

 25-29

23.5

1.19(0.52-2.71)

 

0.58(0.27-1.23)

 30-34

35.6

2.14(1.09-4.21)*

 

0.76(0.34-1.70)

 35-39

41

2.69(1.18-6.09)*

 

0.71(0.28-1.82)

 40-44

38.7

2.44(0.98-6.07)

 

0.66(0.24-1.77)

 45-49

23.2

1.17(0.44-3.11)

 

0.24(0.09-0.69)*

Highest education

 None

15.5

ref

 

ref

 Primary

29.2

2.25(0.91-5.55)

 

1.29(0.61-2.73)

 Secondary

33.5

2.74(1.14-6.56)*

 

1.24(0.57-2.68)

 Tertiary

41.3

3.82(1.64-8.88)*

 

1.64(0.73-3.68)

Employment

 Yes

35.1

ref

 

ref

 No

21.4

0.50(0.26-0.96)*

 

0.67(0.36-1.26)

Place of residence

 Urban

36.8

ref

 

ref

 Rural

14.4

0.29(0.11-0.75)*

 

0.56(0.17-1.79)

Wealth quintile

 Lowest

20.4

ref

 

ref

 Lower

33

1.92(0.88-4.21)

 

1.55(0.75-3.19)

 Middle

34.6

2.06(0.98-4.35)

 

2.04(0.94-4.40)

 Higher

36.7

2.26(1.08-4.73)

 

2.02(0.97-4.21)

 Highest

35.5

2.14(0.95-4.82)

 

1.49(0.59-3.73)

State

 Lagos

38.5

ref

 

ref

 Kano

18.7

0.37(0.19-0.69)*

 

0.52(0.25-1.08)

Social consequences of COVID-19

Loss of personal income

  Small

38.9

ref

ref

ref

  Moderate

36.4

0.90(0.52-1.55)

0.91(0.53-1.57)

1.12(0.68-1.84)

  Large

27.6

0.60(0.34-1.04)

0.57(0.33-.98)

0.76(0.44-1.34)

  No income

32

0.74(0.42-1.30)

0.47(0.17-1.28)

0.87(0.47-1.59)

Loss of household income

  Some or partial

32.1

ref

ref

 

  Total

34.2

1.10(0.74-1.63)

1.71(0.71-4.12)

 

Household food insecurity

  No

31.7

ref

ref

 

  Yes

37.9

1.31(0.83-2.06)

1.28(0.81-2.02)

 

Worry about future household finance

  No

28.3

ref

ref

 

  Yes

33.1

1.25(0.71-2.22)

1.12(0.65-1.93)

 

Economic reliance on partner

  No

35

ref

ref

 

  Yes

29.8

0.79(0.50-1.24)

0.79(0.51-1.22)

 

Marital and reproductive characteristics

No of times married/cohabitted

  Once

33.5

ref

  

  More than one

25.4

0.68(0.30-1.51)

  

Family type

    

  Monogamy

34.3

ref

  

  Polygynous

27.1

0.71(0.41-1.23)

  

Children ever-born

   < =1

21.4

ref

 

ref

  2

32.5

1.77(0.98-3.20)

 

1.43(0.79-2.59)

  3

37.6

2.22(1.30-3.79)*

 

1.82(1.03-3.20)*

  4

42.9

2.77(1.61-4.77)*

 

2.45(1.36-4.39)*

   > =5

29.2

1.52(0.78-2.94)

 

2.89(1.25-6.74)*

History of pregnancy termination in past 3 years

  No

33.2

ref

  

  Yes

27.9

0.78(0.43-1.41)

  

Changed mind

    

  No

32.8

ref

  

  Yes

31.5

0.94(0.56-1.60)

  

Fertility preference

    

  Consistent

33.6

ref

  

  Inconsistent

30.3

0.86(0.59-1.27)

  

Disposition to pregnancy

    

  Happy

19.3

ref

 

ref

  Unhappy

41.5

2.97(2.06-4.29)*

 

2.48(1.72-3.58)*

  1. *p < 0.05